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22978 (52841) Foreman of Works Quartermaster Sergeant
ALFRED JOHN BARTER
Royal Engineers

by
Lieutenant Colonel Edward De Santis
2001. All Rights Reserved.

1. INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise noted, the details supplied in this narrative were obtained from the soldier’s service papers copied at the Public Record Office in Kew, Richmond, Surrey. The service records found on Quartermaster Sergeant Barter include his papers while serving for 21 years in the Regular Army between 1888 and 1909, and the papers for his service during the Great War of 1914-1918. Barter served a total of 25 years during the reigns of three monarchs.

2. EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY INFORMATION

Alfred John Barter was born in the Parish of Wyke [1], near the town of Winchester, in the County of Hampshire on the 14th of July 1868. His father, Albert Barter, was a gardener by trade. Albert Barter was born in 1839 at Crawley, Hampshire. Alfred’s mother, Mary A. Barter, was born in 1828 at Tiverton, Devonshire. Besides Alfred, the Barters had another son, Edward A., who was also born in Winchester in 1871 [2]. The Barter family were members of the Church of England and according to Alfred’s military service papers, he continued as a member of the Church for the rest of his life.

As a young man, Alfred Barter lived at home with his parents at 28 Hyde Street, St. Bartholomew Hyde, in Winchester. He worked as a carpenter and joiner and served as an apprentice for 5 years under brothers by the name of Sealy in Winchester. Prior to his enlistment in the Regular Army in 1888, young Alfred served in the 1st Volunteer Battalion of the Hampshire Regiment. This battalion had its headquarters in Regimental District No. 37 in Winchester.

3. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

The following is a description of Alfred John Barter at the time of his initial enlistment in the Regular Army in 1888:

Apparent age:

20 years

Height:

5 feet 7 inches

Weight:

126 pounds

Chest measurement:

34 inches

Complexion:

Medium

Eyes:

Grey

Hair:

Brown

Distinctive marks:

Small scar from a cut on the inner surface of the index finger of his left hand and faint tattoo marks on the back of his left forearm.

Vaccination marks:

Three marks on left arm from vaccinations in infancy.

The following is a description of Quartermaster Sergeant Barter at the time he was discharged from the Army in 1909:

Age:

40 years and 11 months

Height:

5 feet 7 inches

Complexion:

Fresh

Eyes:

Grey

Hair:

Grey

Distinctive marks:

As when he enlisted

The following is a description of Alfred John Barter at the time of his enlistment in the Army Reserve in 1914:

Age on enlistment:

46 years and 90 days

Height:

5 feet 7 inches

Weight:

134 pounds

Chest (normal expansion):

35 inches

Chest (fully expanded):

37 inches

Eyes:

Grey

Hair:

Grey

Distinctive marks:

Scar on the right index finger [3].

4. ENLISTMENT AND TRAINING

Alfred Barter was recruited in early June of 1888 for service in the Regular Army by the Sergeant Major of the Hampshire Regiment at the regimental depot in Winchester. He was given a medical examination to determine his fitness to serve in the Army and, after being found fit, his Certificate of Final Medical Examination was issued on the 13th of June 1888 [4]. He attested for service in the Royal Engineers at Winchester on the 14th of June. His was a Short Service Attestation for 7 years of Army Service and 15 years of Reserve Service [5].

At the time of his attestation Barter answered all of the usual questions put to the recruit on enlistment. He indicated that he had been living in his father’s house at the time of his enlistment, that he had been an apprentice, that he had never been imprisoned by civil power and that he was not married. He acknowledged that he had been serving in the 1st Volunteer Battalion of the Hampshire Regiment at the time of his enlistment and stated that he had no previous regular naval or military service and that he had never previously been rejected as unfit for naval or military service.

On the 15th of June 1888, Barter was issued his Certificate of Primary Military Examination at Winchester by the Recruiting Officer of the 37th Regimental District. He was found fit for service in the Royal Engineers, as his skills as a carpenter and joiner with 5 years of training and experience as an apprentice made him an immediate asset to the Royal Engineers. The Certificate of the Approving Field Officer was also issued on this date at Winchester by the Officer Commanding the 37th Regimental District. With this final approval, Barter was given the rank of Sapper and Regimental Number 22978. He was immediately posted to the School of Military Engineering at Brompton Barracks in Chatham, Kent to begin his basic training as an engineer soldier.

5. ASSIGNMENTS AND CAMPAIGN SERVICE

Recruit Training (1888-1889)

Sapper Barter arrived at Chatham on the 16th of June 1888 to begin his training [6]. On enlistment all men went through the recruit’s courses of drill and musketry at Chatham. On completion of these courses a certain number either volunteered or were selected for training as submarine miners. Sapper Barter was one of the recruits selected for this training.

Gosport (1889-1893)

Barter spent almost a year at Chatham, and at the completion of his training he was posted to the 4th (Submarine Mining) Company, Royal Engineers at Gosport in Hampshire on the 9th of June 1889. This company was commanded by Captain A.H. Randolph, R.E.[7]

In addition to the ordinary red tunic worn by the Other Ranks of the Royal Engineers, each man in the submarine miners had a working dress of blue serge trousers and coat, a blue jersey, pea jacket, and sailor’s round cap, with Canada pattern knee boots. This made a very effective kit and was thoroughly suited for the work involved in laying mines at sea [8]. At a distance it was difficult to distinguish a submarine miner of the Royal Engineers from a sailor in the Royal Navy when the Sapper was in working dress.

The mission of the Submarine Mining service of the Royal Engineers was to provide an efficient shore based defence for British naval bases. This was accomplished through the use of underwater mines in conjunction with searchlights for harbour defences. The men selected for service with the submarine mining companies had to be physically fit in order to move the heavy mines around and were also chosen for their intelligence and scientific knowledge. After initial training and experience with such mundane tasks as coiling the electric cables used to connect the mines to shore, the men moved on to become divers, electricians, instrument repairers or engine drivers [9]. During his time with the 4th Submarine Mining Company, Barter passed a course of instruction in Testing and Fitting with a rating of "Superior" and qualified as a "Superior" electrician. Barter seemed to be a highly intelligent and very adaptable individual. Although he had been a carpenter and joiner prior to entering the Army, he was able, within a couple of years to develop a "superior" proficiency as a tester, fitter and electrician.

Some of Barter’s training appears to have taken place at the School of Military Engineering, as his service papers show that he returned to Chatham on the 16th of January 1890 and remained there for almost nine months. He returned to Gosport on the 9th of October 1890 to continue his duties with his company.

Leith (1893-1896)

Sapper Barter was assigned to the Coast Battalion Royal Engineers on the 16th of June 1893. The Coast Battalion had been formed in 1885 and was part of the Submarine Mining Establishment. It consisted of a body of officers recruited from the warrant and non-commissioned ranks of the Royal Engineers who retained their regimental position and seniority, and were interchangeable with the rest of the Royal Engineers Submarine Miners. The Coast Battalion was divided into sections, one at each commercial port defended by submarine mines. The duties of a section were the custody and maintenance of the submarine mining defence and the instruction of the Volunteer Submarine Miners at the port where they were stationed. At first the Volunteers were raised as companies of existing Volunteer Corps, but later, when they formed into separate divisions, the officer of the Coast Battalion acted as Adjutant of the Volunteer Division in addition to his duties as officer commanding the section [10].

Sapper Barter was posted to the Forth Section of the Battalion with station at Leith on the south side of the Firth of Forth, approximately two miles northeast of Edinburgh, Scotland [11]. The commander of the Leith station was Lieutenant J. Organ, who had previously been the Sergeant Major of a Submarine Mining Battalion in Singapore [12]. While at Leith, Barter was appointed to the rank of paid Lance Corporal and was subsequently promoted to the rank of 2nd Corporal. On the 2nd of May 1895 he extended his service to complete 12 years with the Colours [13].

Barter served with the Coast Battalion at Leith for over three years. During that period, in addition to his regular duties at Leith, he was twice posted to Barry at Bridgwater Bay on the south coast of South Wales. Barry was a port town located approximately seven miles southwest of Cardiff. The town had extensive docks on the Bristol Channel, thus making it a prime area for harbour defence by the Submarine Mining Establishment. Barter was posted to Barry on the 19th of August 1895, returning to Leith on the 24th of August1895, and again on the 14th of August 1896, returning to Leith on the 27th of August 1896. From the short duration of these postings, it appears that he went to Barry in support of the summer training camps of a Volunteer Submarine Mining unit stationed in that area.

Singapore (1896-1900)

On the 30th of October 1896, Barter sailed aboard S.S. Borneo bound for Singapore, arriving there on the 6th of December 1896. Upon his arrival he was posted to the Singapore Submarine Mining Company. The Singapore Submarine Mining Company was one of five foreign stations were local units were formed which eventually developed on a composite basis, part being composed of trained Royal Engineers, interchangeable individually with all other trained Submarine Miners, and partly of locally enlisted natives. The officers of the companies were always officers of the Royal Engineers [14].

There were four submarine mining stations at Singapore and it was intended at first to enlist all the natives for all the stations at Singapore, where the submarine mining detachments from Hong Kong and Ceylon assembled for annual practice each year. The Malay civilians proved to be very capable submarine miners on the water. However, when it came to enlist them for a term of years, it was found most difficult to persuade them even to enlist for local service. Any idea of employing them at other stations had to be abandoned. It was thus necessary to enlist the natives locally at each port [15].

This was the state of things in 1896 when Barter arrived in Singapore and reported to the Singapore Submarine Miners commanded by Major H.P. Knight. On the 2nd of June 1899, while at Singapore, Barter re-engaged to complete 21 years of service with the Colours [16]. He served at Singapore for just over three years and arrived back in England on the 3rd of February 1900. The South African war against the Boers was raging at this time; however, Barter’s services appeared to be required at home rather than in South Africa. As submarine miners were not in much demand during the Boer War, he would never see service in South Africa.

Chatham (1900-1901)

Following a period of leave, Barter was posted to "G" Depot Company at Chatham and on the 1st of March 1900 he was promoted to the rank of Corporal. He served with "G" Company until the 5th of January 1901 when he was posted to the Supernumerary Staff in London. On the day after his posting he was promoted to the rank of Foreman of Works Staff Sergeant.

London (1901-1903)

The Supernumerary Staff of the Submarine Mining Service consisted of two classes of non-commissioned officers – mechanists and storekeepers. Mechanists superintended working parties and required special rates of pay to attract candidates. They were given a fairly high military rank, commencing on appointment with the rank of company sergeant major (although this was later changed to staff sergeant), and were promoted after six years of service, if otherwise qualified, to the rank of quartermaster sergeant. Further promotion was by selection to warrant rank as sergeant major. Mechanists were selected mainly from non-commissioned officers of good character and special technical attainments.

The class of storekeepers was instituted to provide selected non-commissioned officers to take charge of submarine mining stores at stations. The position, rank, and promotion of these N.C.O.’s were the same as for mechanists [17].

Bermuda (1903-1906)

Staff Sergeant Barter served on the prestigious Supernumerary Staff for almost three years. He embarked for a new assignment in Bermuda on the 20th of November 1903. Presumably he was accompanied to Bermuda by his wife and young daughter, as he had married in September of 1901 and the Barter’s first and only child had been born in December of 1902. The Barter family arrived at Bermuda on the 2nd of December 1903 and from his records it appears that Staff Sergeant Barter was posted to the 27th Submarine Mining Company which was then serving on the island. The 27th Company was commanded by Captain G.C.R. Lawrence, R.E.

Barter’s tour of duty at Bermuda lasted just over three years. He and his family arrived back in England on the 22nd of December 1906 and he was posted again to "G" Depot Company at Chatham. This appears to only have been a transient assignment. On the 6th of January 1907 Barter was promoted to the rank of Foreman of Works Quartermaster Sergeant and was posted to the office of the Commander Royal Engineers (C.R.E.) of the Fermoy Sub-district, County Cork, Ireland. The C.R.E. at Fermoy during this period was Lieutenant Colonel J.L. Lang-Hyde, C.M.G., R.E. [18]

Fermoy (1906-1909)

Fermoy is located on the Blackwater River near the northeast corner of County Cork. Foreman of Works Quartermaster Sergeant Barter served at Fermoy as a member of the Establishment for Engineer Services until his discharge from the Army on the 13th of June 1909 [19]. During his time at Fermoy, he would have been involved with the construction and maintenance of facilities at the various British Army installations within his sub-district.

The Great War (1914-1919)

A little over two months after the outbreak of the Great War, Alfred Barter again offered his service to the Royal Engineers. He was 46 years of age, but he was determined to serve his country in her time of need. He attested for one year’s service in the Army Reserve (Special Reservist) on the 10th of October 1914 at the East Surrey Regiment Depot. Although he was an R.E. Pensioner, he still had to go through all the formalities of enlistment. His Certificate of Medical Examination was issued at Kingston-Upon-Thames on the same day as his enlistment, and he was found fit to serve in the Army Reserve as an Inspector on Home Service. This finding by the Medical Officer concerning his fitness to serve may have been somewhat disconcerting to Barter. Throughout his first 21 years with the Colours he had seen no active service abroad. Now it seemed that his age would prevent his going to a theatre of the war. Up to this point he had only been awarded the Long Service and Good Conduct medal for all his years of service. Service at home would prevent him from qualifying for any other medal except the British War Medal.

The officer handling Barter’s attestation was Major B. Parmeter of the East Surrey Regiment. Barter’s Certificate of Primary Military Examination was issued at Kingston-Upon-Thames on the 10th of October, declaring him fit for service in the Royal Engineers. Major Parmeter certified his attestation on the same date and Barter was back in the Army as a Sapper, Regimental Number 52841. Because of his prior service, Barter was immediately promoted (on the same day as his attestation) to the rank of Acting Quartermaster Sergeant and was transferred to the 99th Field Company, Royal Engineers.

The 99th Field Company formed part of the 22nd Division, one of Kitchener’s New Army divisions, that had been formed in September of 1914 and included battalions from Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire and Wales. The division first concentrated in Sussex and it was there that Quartermaster Sergeant Barter assisted in training and outfitting the new company. The division soon was alerted for movement to France and was scheduled to move to Aldershot in June of 1915 for its final intensive training prior to embarking for France [20]. Since Barter’s enlistment limited him to be an "Inspector on Home Service," he was transferred to the 209th Field Company, Royal Engineers on the 1st of April 1915.

The 209th Field Company formed part of the 34th Division, another of Kitchener’s New Army divisions. The company was raised in Norwich and joined the division when it concentrated at Salisbury Plain between the 28th and the 31st of August 1915. Quartermaster Sergeant Barter performed similar services with the 209th Field Company as he had with the 99th Field Company; that is, he helped get it ready for active service in France. The division received its embarkation orders on the 3rd of January 1916. Entrainment for the port of embarkation began on the 7th of January and on the 11th of January 1916 Barter was transferred to the 4th Provisional Company, Royal Engineers [21]. One can only wonder about his feelings after watching two companies of new soldiers going off to war without him.

The 4th Provisional Company formed a part of the Royal Engineers Depot Battalion located at Chatham. Originally, the Deport Battalion consisted of three companies (G, L and M) and had the mission to receive men returning from the Expeditionary Force in France and to administer the establishment of the School of Military Engineering and the Royal Engineers Band. It also had the responsibility to handle men who enlisted for special formations, such as the tunnelling companies and special (gas warfare) companies. As a result of the rapid build up of the British Army, it was found that the Depot Battalion could not deal with the large number of men returning from the Expeditionary Force, or with the inrush of recruits for the special formations. To meet the requirements of this situation, Provisional Companies were formed. The Provisional Companies and the companies of the original Depot Battalion were formed into two groups of Depot Companies: No. 1 Group consisted of G, L and M Depot Companies and one Provisional Company, and No. 2 Group of four Provisional Companies [22]. Although the historical documents regarding the Provisional Companies are not specific, it is likely that the 4th Provisional Company formed part of No. 2 Group of the Depot Battalion.

Barter served with the 4th Provisional Company until the 28th of August 1916 when he was transferred to the 1st Provisional Company (probably in No. 1 Group of the Depot Battalion). In both of these companies he probably served in the capacity of trainer, inspector and administrator for the new men joining the Corps or returning from the front. His service papers indicate that he was still part of the Establishment for Engineer Services at this time. It is also very likely that his duties may have involved the operation of plant and maintenance of the buildings and facilities of the Depot Battalion at Chatham.

Quartermaster Sergeant Barter served in this capacity at Chatham until the 10th of April 1919 when he was demobilized. The fact that he was demobilized five months after the signing of the Armistice probably indicates that he was serving in a position that involved receiving, processing and demobilizing the soldiers returning home from the theatres of war by way of Chatham.

After his demobilization, Barter went home to 2 Clifton Villas, Gil Mill Lane in Kingston-Upon-Thames. There he took a position as a Works Foreman in an aerodrome and held that position until his final retirement.

Barter’s service at home should have earned him the British War Medal. His service papers do not indicate that he received the medal, however, the medal was issued singly without the Victory Medal to certain regular and mobilized personnel who did not see any fighting during the war. Surely his service would have qualified [23].

6. PROMOTIONS AND CONDUCT

a. Promotions: Quartermaster Sergeant Barter received the following promotions during his time in service:

Date of Promotion or Appointment

Rank or Position

Regular Army Service

Sapper

15 June 1888

Paid Lance Corporal

18 August 1894

2nd Corporal

1 July 1896

Corporal

1 March 1900

Foreman of Works Staff Sergeant

6 January 1901

Foreman of Works Quartermaster Sergeant

6 January 1907

Army Reserve (Special Reservist)

Sapper, with immediate promotion to
Acting Quartermaster Sergeant

10 October 1914

Substantive Quartermaster Sergeant

26 October 1916

Warrant Officer Class II

22 June 1918

b. Conduct: Quartermaster Sergeant Barter received the following Good Conduct Badges during his time in service [24]:

Date of Award

Good Conduct Badge

14 June 1890

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at 1.d per day

14 June 1894

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at 2.d per day

Once he became a non-commissioned officer, Barter was no longer eligible for further Good Conduct Pay awards. Quartermaster Sergeant Barter became eligible for the Long Service and Good Conduct medal on the 13th of June 1906 after completing 18 years of service. He was awarded the medal with a gratuity of 5 on the 1st of October 1906 [25]. At the time of his discharge in 1909, Quartermaster Sergeant Barter’s conduct was listed as "Exemplary" on his discharge papers.

7. EDUCATION AND QUALIFICATIONS

a. Education: Quartermaster Sergeant Barter earned the following Certificates of Education during his time in service [26]:

Date

Certificate of Education

14 September 1888

Awarded a Third Class Certificate of Education

24 February 1891

Awarded a Second Class Certificate of Education

24 October 1903

Awarded a First Class Certificate of Education

b. Qualifications: Quartermaster Sergeant Barter earned the following qualifications during his time in service.

Date

Qualification

15 June 1888

Rated as a "Very Good" Carpenter and Joiner on enlistment.

21 July 1891

Passed Class of Instruction in Testing and Fitting. Rated "Superior." Also qualified as a "Skilled" Military Foreman of Works.

15 March 1892

Rated as a "Superior" Electrician.

1 April 1904

Granted Service Pay, Class 1 @ 7.d per day under Army Order 66 of 1902.

13 June 1919

Rated as a "Very Superior" Carpenter on Discharge.

8. MEDICAL INFORMATION

The following medical information was taken from Alfred John Barter’s service records during his time in service:

Location

Date of
Admission

Ailment

Period of Hospitalization
or Treatment

Winchester

13 Jun 1888

Enlistment
Medical Examination

None

Chatham

16 Aug 1888

Re-vaccination

None

Gosport

8 Dec 1892

Re-vaccination

None

Singapore

31 May 1899

Re-Engagement Medical Examination

None

Kingston-Upon- Thames

10 Oct 1914

Reenlistment Medical Examination

None

Quartermaster Sergeant Barter’s medical history is a phenomenal one. In all of his years of service his records indicate no accidents or illnesses of any kind. He apparently served every day of both enlistments without any time lost due to ill health.

9. MARRIAGE AND PERSONAL INFORMATION

Alfred John Barter married Jane Benton at St. Barnabas Church [27], Pimlico, London on the 18th of September 1901, with leave [28]. Mrs. Barter gave birth to their only child, Florence Mary, in London on the 2nd of December 1902.

It appears the Mrs. Barter and Florence Mary accompanied Staff Sergeant Barter to Bermuda from 1903 to 1906. However, during his last assignment in the Army when he was posted to Fermoy, Ireland, Mrs. Barter appears to have remained in London with their daughter, at 94 Warner Road in Camberwell.

10. DISCHARGE

Service from 1888-1909

Foreman of Works Quartermaster Sergeant Alfred John Barter was discharged from the Regular Army at Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland on the 13th of June 1909 on the termination of his second period of limited engagement. At the time of his discharge he was serving with the Establishment for Engineer Services at Fermoy. His total service during the period from 1888 to 1909 was reckoned as shown in the tables below:

Location

Period of Service

Home

14 June 1888 to 29 October 1896

Singapore

30 October 1896 to 2 February 1900

Home

3 February 1900 to 19 November 1903

Bermuda

20 November 1903 to 21 December 1906

Home

22 December 1906 to 13 June 1909

Location

Period of Service

Home Service

14 years and 236 days

Service Abroad

6 years and 129 days

Total Service

21 years exactly

Barter’s discharge was approved by Lieutenant Colonel J.I. Lang-Hyde, C.M.G., R.E. and he was paid 29-15s-0d in deferred pay prior to leaving the service. Lieutenant Colonel Lang-Hyde indicated on Barter’s discharge papers that he had special qualifications for employment in civil life as a foreman of works. Barter indicated on his discharge papers that his intended place of residence after leaving the Army would be 44 Waldegrave Road, Preston Park, Brighton.

Service from 1914-1919

Barter was demobilized at Chatham following the end of the Great War. He had served at home from the 10th of October 1914 to the 10th of April 1919, a total of 4 years and 182 days. His total service with the Colours, including both enlistments, was 25 years and 182 days.

11. POST SERVICE LIFE

After his discharge from the Regular Army in 1909, Alfred John Barter, R.E. Pensioner, Chelsea Number 86330/C, appears to have worked as a carpenter in Brighton and in Kingston-Upon-Thames. This was his trade in civilian life and it is reasonable to assume that he returned to this line of work. At the time of this discharge he was rated as a "Very Superior" carpenter. His service papers also indicated that he would be well qualified as a foreman of works. He may have tried his hand at both during the years prior to the start of the Great War of 1914-1918; however, on this enlistment papers prepared in 1914 he indicated that this trade was carpenter.

Following his demobilization from the Army in 1919, Barter returned to Kingston-Upon-Thames and took a position as a Works Foreman at a local aerodrome. In addition to his salary as a Works Foreman he also received his pension for his military service. His service papers indicate that in 1945 his pension was just over 105 annually. By 1948 his pension had been increased to 118 annually. This appears to be the last increase he received before his death on the 6th of December 1950 at the age of 82.

Alfred John Barter died at 1 Villiers Road in Kingston, Surrey. The informant of this death was his daughter, Florence M. Barter, of the same address. His death was certified by Edward Burton, M.R.C.S., who indicated his causes of death as myocardial degeneration, hypertensive heart failure and arteriosclerosis. Barter’s death was recorded in the Registration District of Surrey Northern, Sub-district of Kingston and Malden in the County of Surrey by Stanley William Cooke, Registrar, of 35 Coombe Road, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey [29].

REFERENCES

1. Documents

  1. The Service Papers of Alfred John Barter consisting of the following documents:

(1) Short Service Attestation (Army Form B.265), dated 14 June 1888.

[a] Description on Enlistment.

[b] Statement of Services (Army Form B.200).

[c] Military History Sheet.

[d] Medical History.

[e] Proceedings on Discharge (Army Form B. 268).

(2) Army Reserve (Special Reservist) Attestation (Army Form B.248), dated 10 October 1914.

[a] Statement of Services.

[b] Military History Sheet.

[c] Description on Enlistment.

(3) The Royal Hospital, Chelsea, Pension Increase Notification Forms.

[a] Pension Increase, Form 302 dated 8 January 1945.

[b] Pension Increase, Form 302 dated 28 September 1945.

[c] Pension Increase, Form 302 dated 9 January 1948.

[d] Pension Increase, Form 302 dated 14 April 1948.

[e] Revisions, Renewals &c., of Pension (Form 249).

[f] Daily Rate of Pension, Chelsea Hospital Form C.H. 33

b. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death, IO 115893, dated 7 December 1950.

2. Books

ADDISON, G.H. The Works of the Royal Engineers in the European War, 1914-1918. MISCELLANEOUS. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, 1926.

BAKER BROWN, W. The History of the Corps of Royal Engineers. Volume IV. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, 1952.

BAKER BROWN, W. History of Submarine Mining in the British Army. W. & J. Mackay & Co., Ltd., Chatham, 1910.

FARWELL, B. Mr. Kipling’s Army: All the Queen’s Men. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1981.

GORDON, L.L. British Battles and Medals. Spink & Son, Ltd., London, 1971.

GRIERSON, J.M. Scarlet Into Khaki: The British Army on the Eve of the Boer War. Greenhill Books, London, 1988.

SKELLEY, A.R. The Victorian Army at Home: The Recruitment and Terms and Conditions of the British Regular, 1859-1899. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1977.

SMITH, F. A Genealogical Gazetteer of England. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1977.

YOUNG, E. and W. London’s Churches. Grafton Books, London, 1986.

3. CD ROM Library

1881 British Census and National Index. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 1999.

ENDNOTES

[1] Barter’s service papers clearly show the parish as Wyke. A check of A Genealogical Gazetteer of England, showing every ancient parish of England, shows no data for the Parish of Wyke in Hampshire.

[2] 1881 British Census, FHL Film 1341301, PRO Ref. RG11, Piece 1233, Folio 90, Page 7.

[3] Note that the scar has moved from his left index finger to his right index finger and there is no mention of the faint tattoo marks.

[4] See Age and Physical Requirements for Soldiers in the British Army (Victorian Period).

[5] See Periods of Enlistment for the Corps of Royal Engineers.

[6] See Engineer Recruit Training.

[7] BAKER BROWN, p. 142.

[8] Ibid., p. 141.

[9] REGIMENT Magazine, pp. 30-31.

[10] BAKER BROWN, pp. 152-153.

[11] Monthly Army List, June 1890, p. 248.

[12] BAKER BROWN, p. 155.

[13] See Extensions of Service of the Regular Army.

[14] BAKER BROWN, p. 155.

[15] Ibid.

[16] See Re-Engagement in the Regular Army.

[17] BAKER BROWN, pp. 140-141.

[18] Royal Engineers List, December 1908.

[19] See Establishment for Engineer Services.

[20] WESTLAKE, p. 90.

[21] Ibid., p. 128 and 131.

[22] ADDISON, pp. 43-44.

[23] GORDON, p. 313.

[24] See Good Conduct Pay.

[25] This medal is in the author’s collection and is the basis for this research. Barter was a Staff Sergeant at the time he received the medal. The medal is incorrectly named to 22978 ST SJT. A.T. BARTER, R.E. The middle initial is a "T" instead of a "J."

[26] See Certificates of Education.

[27] St. Barnabas Church is located on Pimlico Road in London, SW1, just northeast of Chelsea Barracks. The church was a school (1846) – clergy house (1848) – church (1850) development which almost amounted to a mission-village, of which there were so many in the slums of Victorian London. It was built by the incumbent of St. Paul’s, Wilton Place, in the slums at the southern end of his parish. The church was built as a model Puseyite church, aimed to satisfy Tractarian not ‘Ecclesiologist’ principles. The liturgical practices carried on at St. Barnabas soon caused trouble after the church was built, with matins and evensongs sung daily, the daily celebration of Holy Communion, and the separation of the sexes during services. It became famous and was lampooned as the "Convent of the Belgravians." It also became fashionable to attend St. Barnabas. The church was built to resemble a medieval rural church that was admired in the 1850’s. Gas lighting was installed at once. As the district smartened up, so did the church. The church furnishings became ever richer through a very fine wooden screen surmounted by a majestic Christ crucified – all gold figure and finialed by Bodley in 1893.

[28] See Marriage of Soldiers During the Victorian Period.

[29] Death Certificate.