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12462 (185029) Sapper
Royal Engineers

Lieutenant Colonel Edward De Santis
Ó 2001. All Rights Reserved.


Unless otherwise noted, the details supplied in this narrative were obtained from the soldier’s service papers. It should be noted that Bradshaw’s records were recovered from the "burnt" record files at the Public Record Office at Kew, Surrey. Some of the pages of his records are illegible as a result of fire damage; hence some details on the records could not be deciphered.


Robert Bradshaw was born in the Parish of St. Albans in Blackburn, Lancashire in February of 1878 [1]. A search of the Vital Record Index of the British Isles and the 1881 British Census [2] found no entries for a Bradshaw family living in Blackburn, Lancashire at the time of Bradshaw’s birth. According to Bradshaw’s service records it is known that his family were Roman Catholics. His records also indicate that he had two sisters; Gertrude and Lena.

As a young man Robert Bradshaw worked as a printer in Blackburn. He showed an early interest in the military and prior to joining the Regular Army in 1903 he served with the 1st Volunteer Battalion of the East Lancashire Regiment, a unit whose headquarters was located in his hometown of Blackburn [3].


The following is the description of Robert Bradshaw at the time of his first enlistment in the Army in 1903 [4]:

Age on Enlistment:

23 years


5 feet 5 inches


121 pounds

Chest Measurement (minimum):

33½ inches

Chest Measurement (maximum expansion):

36 inches





Distinctive Marks:

Poor tattoo marks on both forearms [5]

The following is a description of Robert Bradshaw at the time of his transfer to the Army Reserve in 1911 [6]:


31 years

Height (without boots):

5 feet 6 inches

Chest Measurement (over waistcoat):

39 inches

Waist Measurement (over top of trousers):

33 inches

Exact Size of Helmet:

22 inches

Exact Size of Boots:








Descriptive Marks:

Poor tattoo marks on both forearms

The following is a description of Robert Bradshaw at the time of his second enlistment in the Army in 1916:


36 years and 6 months


5 feet 5 inches


126 pounds

Chest Measurement (fully expanded):

36 inches

Range of Chest Expansion:

3½ inches

Vision (both eyes):

6/96 inches

Congenital Peculiarities or Marks of Previous Disease:


Physical Development:


Descriptive Marks:

Tattoos on both arms


Robert Bradshaw applied for a special enlistment as a recruit to be posted to a Survey Company of the Royal Engineers if an opening became available in one of the companies. This application undoubtedly was an attempt by him to utilize his skills as a printer while serving in the Army. He was enlisted on the 3rd of February 1903 at Blackburn for service in the Royal Engineers. His was a Short Service Enlistment for 3 years with the Colours and 9 years with the Army Reserve [7].

At the time of his enlistment he indicated that he was unmarried and that he had never served as an Apprentice. His Certificate of Primary Military Examination was issued at Blackburn on the 3rd of February 1903 and the Certificate of the Approving Officer was signed on the same day at Burnley, Lancashire. Robert Bradshaw was approved for service in the Royal Engineers and became Sapper Bradshaw, Regimental Number 12462. He was immediately posted to Brompton Barracks at Chatham, Kent for basic training as an engineer soldier [8].


Training and Service in England

After a period of training at the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, Sapper Bradshaw was assigned to surveying duties and was stationed at Clifton in Bristol where he served with the 13th Survey Company, Royal Engineers. He apparently liked military service for he decided to extend his original enlistment to complete 8 years with the Colours [9]. His Company Commander wrote of Bradshaw that he considered him "likely to become a very good leveller and a useful survey hand." As his character up to this point also was rated as "Very Good," his request for extension of service was approved by the Director General of Ordnance Survey on the 23rd of August 1905. After the approval of his extension, Bradshaw was assigned to the 17th Field Company at Aldershot in Hampshire [10].

Bradshaw returned to Chatham about two years later to attend the Printing School at the School of Military Engineering. While at the School he was assigned to "E" Depot Company. On the 24th of April 1907 he was granted a Certificate of Trade Proficiency after being tested in the Military Workshop at the Printing School. He was rated as a "Superior" Printer (Compositor). He achieved this rating by getting the following marks in the various subjects he was taught:



Composing, correcting and distributing (in one hour)

135 of 150

Composing forms

60 of 75

Composing Tables and Tabular Work

160 of 200

Composing Equations and Mathematical Formulę

140 of 200

Making Up and Imposition of Pages

65 of 75

Taking Charge of Work as "Leading Hand" or "Clicker"

200 of 300

Total Score:

760 of 1000

Service in Ireland

By February of 1908 Sapper Bradshaw was serving with the Ordnance Survey in Dublin Ireland and was stationed at Curragh Camp. His transfer to Ireland seemed to have an adverse effect on him, one that manifested itself by his over indulgence in alcohol and by his unruly behavior. Despite his disciplinary problems, he seems to have performed his military duties very well. On the 10th of September 1908 the Commander Royal Engineers in Dublin rated him as a "Very Superior" Printer. He achieved this rating by again being examined to prove his abilities as a Printer. The scores he achieved on this examination are shown in the table below:



Composing, correcting and distributing (in one hour)

120 of 150

Composing forms

65 of 75

Composing Tables and Tabular Work

190 of 200

Composing Equations and Mathematical Formulę

Not Tested(*)

Making Up and Imposition of Pages

60 of 75

Taking Charge of Work as "Leading Hand" or "Clicker"

280 of 300

Total Score:

715 of 800

(*) For some reason there was no means of carrying out this part of the examination in Dublin; hence, Bradshaw’s score was based on a total of 800 points rather than the customary 1000 points. Whereas 760 out of 1,000, or 76%, got him a qualification of "Superior" in 1907, 715 points out of 800, or 89%, got him a qualification of "Very Superior." The inability to test him in composing equations and mathematical formulę worked to his advantage as will be seen later.

Service at Malta and Gibraltar

Sapper Bradshaw was transferred to the 24th Fortress Company on Malta on the 23rd of September 1908. His time on Malta was neither happy nor healthy. His medical records indicate that that he suffered from a number of ailments while he was there, many of these requiring him to be hospitalized. Additionally, he began to drink heavily and was disciplined on many occasions for being drunk [11].

He spent about two years on Malta and on the 28th of September 1910 he was transferred to the 32nd Fortress Company at Gibraltar. He served there for just over two months and on the 15th of November 1910 he was reassigned to the 42nd Fortress Company in England [12].

Transfer to the Army Reserve and Discharge

Bradshaw completed his period of limited engagement on the 2nd of February 1911 and was transferred to the Army Reserve. Perhaps for reasons of poor health, or perhaps because of the disciplinary problems he was having, he did not opt to extend his service beyond the period of this engagement. He was transferred to the Army Reserve with a proficiency rating as a "Very Superior" Printer. He indicated that his intended place of residence would be 118 Wimberley Street in Blackburn, Lancashire. Bradshaw served in the Army Reserve until the 3rd of August 1912 when he was discharged from the Army.

Recalled for the Great War

Bradshaw remained a civilian for almost exactly two years when he was recalled to the Colours on the outbreak of the Great War. Presumably he was working as a printer in Blackburn during this time. He was mobilized at Chatham on the 6th of August 1914 and was posted to "G" Company of the Royal Engineers Depot Battalion. On the 14th of September 1914 he was shipped to France to join the British Expeditionary Force. His assignment was to the 29th Works Company, a unit that was employed on the Lines of Communications in France. He served with this company for about two months and was then assigned to No. 3 General Base Depot. On the 30th of January 1915 he joined the 23rd Field Company, a divisional unit of the British 1st Division. His stay with this unit was a very short one, and on the 17th of February 1915 he was posted to the Royal Engineers Base Depot at Rouen, France. A number of rapid reassignments then followed. He left Rouen on the 14th of April 1915 to join the 5th Field Company then serving with the British 2nd Division near Aubers. He served with the 5th Field Company through the battles at Aubers (9 May 1915) and Festubert (15 to 25 May 1915) and was subsequently transferred to the 30th Fortress Company. On the 15th of September 1915 he left the 30th Fortress Company and joined the 23rd Field Company again near Loos. He saw action with this unit at Loos between the 25th of September and the 5th of October [13].

Sapper Bradshaw arrived at No. 4 General Base Depot on the 20th of January 1916, in preparation for his discharge from the Army. He was assigned to the 5th Field Company for a short period of time, probably for administrative purposes, and on the 27th of January 1916 he proceeded to England where he was posted to "G" Depot Company for discharge. His discharge took place on the 2nd of February 1916 [14].

Return to the Colours

After a little over 5 months as a civilian, Robert Bradshaw reenlisted in the Royal Engineers at Blackburn. He was now 36½ years old and still unmarried. He listed his trade as a Printer when he enlisted, so presumably he was working as a printer in Blackburn prior to rejoining the Army [15].

Bradshaw was given a medical examination at Preston, Lancashire on the 24th of July 1916 and was pronounced fit for military service. His enlistment was approved by the Officer Commanding the Depot Companies Royal Engineers at Chatham on the same day and he was given a new Regimental Number. He was now 185029 Sapper Robert Bradshaw, Royal Engineers.

Service at Chatham

Bradshaw was again evaluated to determine his skill as a Printer. On the 1st of August 1916 he was qualified as a "Superior" Printer (Compositor) at the School of Military Engineering at Chatham. The following was his Qualification Report from the School:



Composing, correcting and distributing (in one hour)


Composing forms


Composing Tables and Tabular Work


Composing Equations and Mathematical Formulę


Making Up and Imposition of Pages


Taking Charge of Work as "Leading Hand" or "Clicker"




Use of Field Patterns of Printing, Copying and Duplicating Apparatus


Field Work


Overall Qualification:


(*) It should be noted that he was only rated as "Proficient" in composing equations and mathematical formulę. The "Very Superior" rating he was given in Ireland in 1908 did not include examination in this area. It should also be noted that the marks in each area now are qualitative rather than quantitative. No explanation is given in his records to indicate how these scores were derived.

On the 18th of November 1916 Sapper Bradshaw was transferred to "C" Company of the Royal Engineers Reserve Battalion at Chatham where he remained for more than a year. On the 18th of July 1917 he was transferred to "L" Depot Company and spent an additional six months at Chatham before proceeding to France once again [16].

Service in France

Sapper Bradshaw joined the Depot Field Survey Battalions on the 25th of December 1917. He remained at the Depot until the 30th of September 1918 when he was posted to the 3rd Field Survey Battalion with the British Third Army. He returned to the Depot Field Survey Battalions on the 4th of October 1918.

Final Days in the Army

The fighting on the Western Front ended on the 11th of November 1918 and on the 15th Bradshaw was sent back to England for 14 days leave prior to being discharged from the Army. He remained assigned to the Depot Field Survey Battalions and on the 20th of January 1919 the Depot prepared his Statement as to Disability [17]. On the 10th of February 1919 he was issued his Protection Certificate and Certificate of Identity. Bradshaw indicated that his intended place of residence would be 19 Blakey Moor in Blackburn. He was informed that in the event of an emergency, he was to report to Deganwy in Wales for mobilization.

On the 9th of March 1919 Sapper Robert Bradshaw was transferred to the Class "Z" Army Reserve. For his service during the Great War of 1914 to 1918 he was issued the 1914 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal [18].


a. Promotions: Sapper Bradshaw received no promotions during his time in service. One can only assume that his conduct was an obstacle to his promotion. His records indicate that he was a "Superior" to "Very Superior" Printer during his time in the Army. For one who performed his duties well, a promotion to at least Lance Corporal would have seemed appropriate. As will be seen in the following section, his conduct probably held him back as he certainly did not comport himself in a way that would have been expected of a junior non-commissioned officer.

b. Conduct: Sapper Bradshaw received the following Good Conduct Badges during his time in service:

Date of Award

Good Conduct Badge [19]

2 February 1905

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at the rate of 1.d per day.

3 February 1908

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at the rate of 2.d per day.

Sapper Bradshaw had a number of disciplinary problems during his time in service. These problems are summarized in the table below:

Date of Offence

Nature of Offence and Punishment Awarded

25 May 1908

Drunk on field works parade. Confined to barracks for 8 days effective 1 June 1908.

15 August 1908

Drunk and improperly dressed in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland. Fined 2 shillings and 6 pence and confined to barracks for 5 days effective 18 August 1908.

24 October 1908

Drunk in barracks. Fined 10 shillings on 26 October 1908.

7 May 1910

Drunk in barracks. Fined 5 shillings and confined to barracks for 7 days effective 9 May 1910.

9 November 1914

Absent without leave for 15 hours. Awarded 3 days confinement to barracks on 10 November 1914 (*).

30 January 1915

Absent without leave for 26 hours. Awarded confinement to barracks and forfeiture of pay on 1 February 1915. The duration of confinement and amount of forfeiture was note stated in his records.

9 July 1917

Absent without leave for 2 days, 21 hours and 50 minutes. Awarded forfeiture of pay for 8 days effective 13 July 1917.

NOTE: (*) When this offence was committed his record indicated that he had four cases of drunkenness on his record as of this date. This note may indicate that his absence was associated with drinking.

At the time that Sapper Bradshaw applied to extend his enlistment with the Colours in 1905, his character was rated as "Very Good." When he transferred to the Army Reserve in 1911 his conduct was rated as "Good." Despite all of the disciplinary problems listed above, Bradshaw’s service papers do not indicate that he lost any of his Good Conduct Badges.


a. Education: Sapper Bradshaw earned a 3rd Class Certificate of Education during his time in service [20].

b. Qualifications: Sapper Bradshaw earned the following qualifications during his time in service:



23 August 1905

Granted Service Pay Class I at 6.d per day.

24 April 1907

Issued Certificate of Trade Proficiency. "Superior" Printer (Compositor).

3 February 1908

Granted Service Pay Class I at 7.d per day.

10 September 1908

Rated as a "Very Superior" Printer.


The following medical information was taken from Sapper Bradshaw’s service records during his time in service:



Ailment or Medical Examination

Period of Hospitalization
or Treatment


3 Feb 1903

Medical examination.

Sebaceous cyst on right neck [21]. Found fit for Army service. Place in Medical Category "A"


11 Jun 1916

Gastritis and diarrhea.

Admitted to hospital for 6 days. Released on 16 Jun 1906.


1 Apr 1909

Rectal Abscess

Admitted to hospital for 30 days. Released on 30 Apr 1909.


1 May 1909

Fistula in anus [22]

Admitted to hospital for 35 days. Released on 4 Jun 1909.


26 Aug 1909

Hydrocele [23]

Admitted to hospital for 12 days. Released on 6 Sep 1909.


26 Sep 1910

Delirium tremors

Admitted to hospital for 2 days. Released on 28 Sep 1910.


28 Sep 1910

Delirium tremors

Readmitted to hospital for 6 days. Released on 3 Oct 1910.


24 Jul 1916

Medical examination

Found fit for military service.

Etaples, France

2 Jul 1918

Unknown ailment

Treatment and duration unknown.

Etaples, France

16 Aug 1918

Medical examination

Placed in Medical Category "A"

United Kingdom

10 Feb 1919

Medical Examination

Placed in Medical Category "A"


Robert Bradshaw’s service records indicate that he was never married during the time he served in the Army. He was born and raised in Blackburn, Lancashire and in 1911 he resided at 118 Wimberley Street in Blackburn. His records show that his sister Gertrude Bradshaw, who was listed as his next of kin in 1914, resided at 19 Kendal Street in Blackburn. Gertrude subsequently moved to 82 Bold Street in Blackburn by 1916.

When Bradshaw reenlisted in the Royal Engineers in July of 1916 he listed his address as 14 Joseph Street in Blackburn. He no longer listed his sister Gertrude as his next of kin at that time, but rather he indicated at his next of kin was his sister Lena Bradshaw who lived at 19 Blakey Moor in Blackburn, Lancashire. Upon his final discharge from the Army in 1919, Bradshaw indicated that he would reside at the Blakey Moor address.

An address is given for Lena Bradshaw in the service papers indicating that in 1921 she resided at The Cottages, Caythorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire.


Robert Bradshaw was discharged from the Army for the last time at Blackburn, Lancashire on the 9th of March 1919 [24]. His total service was reckoned as shown in the tables below:


Period of Service

Home (Volunteer Force)

From ___ to 2 February 1903


3 February 1903 to 22 September 1908


23 September 1908 to 28 September 1910


29 September 1910 to 15 November 1910

Home (Army Reserve)

16 November 1910 to 5 August 1914

Home (Mobilized)

6 August 1914 to 13 September 1914


14 September 1914 to 27 January 1916


28 January 1916 to 2 February 1916

Home (Reenlisted)

24 July 1916 to 24 December 1916


25 December 1916 to 15 November 1918

Home (To Class "Z" Reserve)

16 November 1918 to 9 March 1919


Period of Service

Home Service

10 years and 104 days

Service Abroad

5 years and 147 days

Total Service

15 years and 251 days [25]

NOTE: The total service in the table above does not include Bradshaw’s service with the 1st Volunteer Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment. His enlistment date in the Volunteer Force is not indicated in his service papers. His discharge date from the Volunteer Force would be the day prior to his enlistment in the Regular Army.


There is a form in Sapper Bradshaw’s service papers that indicates that he may have died shortly after the war ended. The Army Form Number is obliterated by charring, but the title of the document is STATEMENT of the Names and Addresses of all the Relatives of the above-named deceased Soldier in each of the degrees specified below that are now living. The form was signed and dated by his sister Lena Bradshaw on the 6th of March 1921. The form indicates that Bradshaw had no widow or children. His mother and father were both deceased. He had no brothers. His sister Gertrude is not listed on the form, so presumably she was also deceased. Only his sister Lena is listed as next of kin on the form and her address at the time is shown as The Cottages, Caythorpe, nr Grantham, Lincolnshire. It appears that Sapper Bradshaw’s medals were forwarded to his sister Lena on the 24th of February 1921.


The following analysis of Sapper Bradshaw’s career was provided by Stuart Gase of West Drayton, Middlesex, himself an ex-Sapper of more recent vintage than Robert Bradshaw.

Bradshaw’s first couple of months in the Army were in units where he had the opportunity to work as a printer. If the Officers Commanding the 23rd or 5th Field Companies, or even the 30th Fortress Company, were desperate for trained tradesmen to fill gaps in their ranks, and this older Sapper were sent to them, they would probably have wondered why. When he arrived at these units, Bradshaw was a soldier with many years of service who had never been promoted. It would only be normal for an O.C. of his unit to wonder why. Did Bradshaw lack ambition or did he lack the qualities that make a good engineer soldier?

His trade gives the impression of an indoor type, and this impression is borne out by his physical description in 1916. Although his physical development is described as good, Bradshaw’s 36 inch chest and height of 5 feet 5 inches at 37 years of age is not indicative of a man who could use a pick with great vigour.

Both the 5th and the 23rd Field Companies had been in France from early in the war. Bradshaw was probably posted with a replacement draft of soldiers and never did fit in quite well with the Old Contemptibles of the original companies. So when a request came to shuffle some Sappers to another company, then "That small chap at the back, can’t remember his name but he’s a printer by trade, he can go . . . " would have been the prevalent attitude. Of course once this happened, he became the perpetual newcomer and because he was unknown to the O.C. he was more likely to fall prey to any reorganization.

His conduct during this period of service was only blemished while he was at No. 3 General Base Depot, the second instance of misconduct possibly prompting his move to the front with the 23rd Field Company. His reenlistment does not shout of someone who felt miserable during his time in the Army or someone who was made to feel an outcast. It is more likely that he did not feel comfortable as a civilian while others were overseas doing their bit. He probably still felt that he could use his trade to the country’s benefit. It certainly would have been easy for a 36-year-old man to have joined another less demanding Corps and take an easy home posting. Instead, Bradshaw chose to reenlist in the Royal Engineers. Maybe as a middle-aged man with no dependents he felt a strong sense of duty for those who did have families.

The reasons for all the things that happened to Sapper Robert Bradshaw will never be known for certain. It is possible that even Bradshaw himself never knew all the reasons behind all of his moves during the war.


Soldier’s Papers

  1. Application for the Special Enlistment of a Recruit (Army Form B. 203).
  2. Medical History, 1903.
  3. Company Defaulters’ Book, 1903.
  4. Short Service Enlistment Papers, 1903, including:

a. Attestation.
b. Description on Enlistment.
c. Certificate of Primary Military Examination.
d. Certificate of Approving Officer.
e. Statement of Service (Army Form B. 200).
f. Military History Sheet.

5. Application for Extension of Service (Army Form B. 221).
6. Certificate of Trade Proficiency (Army Form B. 195).
7. Trade and Special Qualifications.
8. Qualification Report, 1907.
9. Proceedings of a Board of Officers, Royal Hospital, Dublin (Army Form A. 2) With Qualification Report, 1908.
10. Regimental Conduct Sheet.
11. Medical Transfer Certificate (Army Book 172).
12. Medical History.
13. Proceedings on Transfer to The 1st Class Army Reserve.
14. Enlistment Paper, 1916, including:

a. Attestation.
b. Description on Enlistment.
c. Military History Sheet.
d. Statement of Services.

15. Statement as to Disability (Army Form Z. 22).
16. Punishment Sheet, 1914.
17. Protection Certificate and Certificate of Identity.
18. Medal Index Card.
19. Medical History, 1916.
20. Transfer Statement of Clothing and Necessities (Army Form W. 3068).
21. Company Conduct Sheet, 1916.
22. Qualification Report, 1916.
23. STATEMENT of the Names and Addresses of all the Relatives of the above-named deceased Soldier in each of the degrees specified below that are now living.
24. Transmittal Letter to Accompany Issue of Medals.


1. ADDISON, G.H. The Works of the Royal Engineers in the European War, 1914-1918. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, 1926.

2. CHASSEAUD, P. Artillery’s Astrologers. A History of British Survey and Mapping on the Western Front, 1914-1918. Mapbooks, Lewes, East Sussex, 1999.

3. FARWELL, B. Mr. Kipling’s Army: All the Queen’s Men. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1981.

4. GRIERSON, J.M. Scarlet Into Khaki: The British Army on the Eve of the Boer War. Greenhill Books, London, 1988.

5. JONES, H.W., HOERR, N.L. and OSOL, A. (editors). Blakiston’s New Gould Medical Dictionary. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1941.

6. SKELLEY, A.R. The Victorian Army at Home: The Recruitment and Terms and Conditions of the British Regular, 1859-1899. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1977.


Battle Honours of the Royal Engineers. The Royal Engineers Journal. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, 1925-1932.


MICROSOFT EXPEDIA MAPS. http:\www.expediamaps.com


[1] Blackburn is located approximately 38 miles due east of Leeds and is an industrial town with one of the largest cotton-spinning centres in the world.

[2] Both of these records are on CD-ROM from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.


[4] See Age and Physical Requirements for Soldiers in the British Army.

[5] No where in any of his medical records are these tattoos described in terms of their design.

[6] It should be noted that the descriptions "over waistcoat", "over top of trousers", "exact size of helmet", and "exact size of boots" are unique to the document entitled Proceedings on Transfer to The 1st Class Army Reserve" prepared for Bradshaw at this time. The author has seen hundreds of descriptions of soldiers upon entering or leaving the Army, and this is the first form of this kind he has ever encountered.

[7] See Periods of Enlistment for the Corps of Royal Engineers.

[8] See Engineer Recruit Training.

[9] See Extensions of Service of the Regular Army.

[10] This seems to be a peculiar state of affairs. Bradshaw was allowed to extend his service presumably because he had the potential to become a good surveyor. However, shortly after the approval of his extension, he was assigned to a field company where his knowledge of surveying would be in much less demand.

[11] His problems on Malta could have developed for a number of reasons including climate, isolation and the fact that with a fortress company he may not have been performing the duties he enjoyed most, namely surveying.

[12] The reasons for these rapid transfers within a period of about two months is not clear from his service record.

[13] The damage done to his service records is most unfortunate, as there is no way to explain Bradshaw’s frequent transfers from unit to unit.

[14] This is a strange occurrence as well. After being mobilized to serve with the original British Expeditionary Force in August of 1914, he is suddenly discharged early in 1916 before the large British offensive on the Somme. Again, due to the damage to his records, the reason for this discharge is unknown and quite perplexing. Most men served for the duration of the war after mobilization unless they were severely wounded or gassed, or became severely ill.

[15] His reenlistment only five months after his discharge makes the reason for his discharge in February 1916 even more perplexing.

[16] His records do not indicate it, but he may have been employed at the Printing School of the School of Military Engineering at this time as an instructor or assistant instructor.

[17] The nature of his disability is not evident in his records. This is especially confusing because on his discharge from the Army he was placed in Medical Category "A."

[18] The Victory Medal is the only medal in the author’s collection. The whereabouts of Bradshaw’s 1914 Star and British War Medal are unknown.

[19] See Good Conduct Pay.

[20] See Certificates of Education.

[21] A sebaceous cyst is a harmless or benign cyst that forms especially on the scalp or face from a fatty secretion from gland in the skin near hair follicles.

[22] A fistula is an abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the body surface, or from one organ to another.

[23] Hydrocele is a pathological accumulation of serious fluid in a bodily cavity, especially in the scrotal pouch.

[24] This is actually the date of his transfer to the Class "Z" Reserve. The date of his actual discharge could not be found in his records.

[25] This was a long time to serve with the rank and pay of a Sapper.